Electrode Film Deposition

Material transport from the electrolyte means i) transport by convection, ii) transport by diffusion, hydration layer removal, and iv) adsorption onto the cathode.
Material transport from the electrolyte means i) transport by convection, ii) transport by diffusion, hydration layer removal, and iv) adsorption onto the cathode.
In our simple model, deposition starts with i) the physical adsorption of ions on a random site of the solid, ii) thermally activated jumps to energetically more attractive crystal sites with more neighbours and iii) finally the incorporation into the growing crystal. The colouring of the different layers aims for a better visualization.
A slower growth rate (left) lead to smoother deposits, since the adsorbed atoms have more time (more jumps between different sites) to find a crystal site with a maximum number of neighbours. The colouring of the different layers aims for a better visualization.
Near spikes, the electric field is higher which promotes the adsorption and incorporation of cations, hereby promoting the growth of already existing crystallites. The colouring of the different layers aims for a better visualization.